White Papers of the GRAAL Project


The icon of the GRAAL project is the Railway Bridge over the Firth of Forth in Scotland.

Vitruvius was a reactionary engineer in the Roman army who wanted to return to ancient practices.

Argues that the architecture of the system is the way that the synergy among its components generate emergent system properties.

This paper argues that architecting is designing on a grand scale.

Explains the problem of aligning the worlds of software, the business world, and the physical world.

Lists the roles that architects can play and relates them to some commonly used role names.

The GRAAL Framework

The framework consists of four dimensions that can be used to simplify descriptions of complex systems.  

Results of the GRAAL Project

Describes service layering and relates this to the GRAAL framework.

Describes frequently occurring infrastructure domains. Discusses infrastructure change, architecture, and procurement decisions.

Distinguishes applications from information systems and shows several ways in which to represent these.

Shows that software infrastructure tends to be misaligned with business systems.

Explains Conway's law that the structure of a designed system is isomorphic to the communication structure of the designing system.

Discusses a widely occurring business architecture pattern.

Discusses a standard approach to business system architecture definition.

Discusses ICT governance as a coordination problem.